Should Disciples Protest?

I believe when Jesus said disciples were to be a light to the world and the salt of the earth this means more than studying the Bible behind closed doors.  It means we make a difference and are known to shine God’s care for the poor and disadvantaged into the world. 

We don’t limit our concerns to fellow believers.  When Paul said in Gal 6:10 we should do good unto all especially fellow believers he wasn’t limiting who our neighbour is and suggesting we pour our charitable concerns only into our fellows.  Paul is reminding disciples not to neglect believers as we do good to all. 

The Christadelphian faith tradition happily has a variety of opinions although a conservative majority have tended to shy away from protest.  This post will explore the basis of why we should be an audible voice in the public square.


I am fortunate to live in a democracy which affords a great many freedoms to me – a novel one historically speaking is the freedom to practice my religion in peace.  Most democratic countries allow, in some form or another, freedom of speech and the right to protest, to raise concerns about issues. 

Now let’s be clear on what I mean by “protest”. There are legitimate ways of expressing an opinion publicly in opposition to government policy or common practice.  I’m NOT advocating or supporting in any way the violent or destructive behaviour some feral individuals engage in under cover of public protests.

Some people proclaim horror at democracies because they elevate all people, they treat people equally.  Far from being a horrendous human invention this radical idea was first written down around 2,500 years ago in Gen 1:27.  Here all men and women were both made in God’s image.  This was a staggeringly egalitarian declaration.  At a time when the local king alone was the divine image on earth and societies tended to be highly patriarchal, God declared the equal value of all humans regardless of race, class, or gender.  God shows equal opportunity love to all (John 3:16) and salvation knows nothing of the human distinctions we use to separate and elevate a privileged few (Gal 3:28). 

These egalitarian positions in Scripture are not academic, this theological reality should have real world, concrete consequences in our behaviours.  James 3:9 points out the incongruity of worshipping God and cursing humans made in God’s image.  Being all made in God’s image governs the decisions and actions of the faithful.

The Bible does not comment on the merits of one political system versus another.  It does absolutely proclaim the dignity of all humans and expect us to behave accordingly.

Examining the case for inaction

My faith tradition (Christadelphian) usually takes a non-participation view of social justice, seeing it as contrary to the “citizen of heaven” ideal in Philippians 3:20.  So we get statements like the below:

nothing can justify brethren of Christ taking part in demonstrations for disarmament, freedom, social justice, or any other cause: or even of being associated with them in any way. Nor should they take part in movements for reform. Social reform can only be achieved by political action, and we have no part in the polity of the present world order. Our politics are those of the Kingdom of God.[1]

Louis Sargent

More recently but on a similar line, one of our magazines published an article saying:

We are grieved by suffering, but our citizenship prevents us from engaging in politics and protests in the kingdom of men. “Our citizenship is in heaven” (Phil 3:20 RV), and it is not appropriate for us to agitate for political and social change in the countries in which we dwell as pilgrims and strangers.[2]

Geoff Henstock

An immediate rejoinder to the ‘citizens from elsewhere’ argument is pointing out that we are now ambassadors for Jesus (2 Cor 5:20) – and ambassadors by definition are not citizens but do represent the interests and values of their own kingdom in a foreign place.  However let’s dig a little further into the argument.  Let’s explore some of the “no politics” passages before moving on to more positive material.

Daniel 4:17 is a key passage to support sentiments like those expressed above, it says:

the Most High has authority over human kingdoms, and he bestows them on whomever he wishes. He establishes over them even the lowliest of human beings

So God puts in place the people he wants to get results.  This means occasionally God will put people in place who do bad things – the Pharaoh of the Exodus is a classic Biblical example.  So should we take political action to influence God’s appointees?  Yes. 

In Nehemiah 3 a faithful man very directly seized his opportunity to put a political plea to the King having prayed about it already in the previous chapter.  He had no mandate from God to take this action.  Rather he was convinced of what was right and sought an opportunity to speak to the king to influence government policy.  God appointing someone doesn’t mean we can’t present a case for what we believe is the right course of action.

The Old Testament prophets regularly condemn the failures (religious and social) of the kings put in place by God and urge change.  They did not limit their criticism to just the people of Israel either.  There is a difference between recognising a government might be there because of God and assessing (and pointing out) that the government is morally deficient.  Daniel 4 doesn’t preclude imitating the prophets and demanding justice.

God might appoint the leaders.  But this doesn’t preclude us from challenging them OR even questioning God’s decisions. Habakkuk actively questions the wisdom and morality of God’s plans in Hab 1 and ultimately stands demanding answers from his God in Hab 2:1.  Questioning God’s decisions need not be an unfaithful or blasphemous activity if we are trying to seek the furtherance of God’s values and agenda.  We might not understand the broader purpose, but we don’t have to be quiet either.

A rejoinder to the example of the prophets is sometimes suggested that because the prophets were moved by God they could say things we can’t.  This is true but not in the way presented.  We can’t speak with God’s direct authority.  But we are surely meant to imitate God’s past servants.  Plus the objection misses the point that the prophets urge EVERYONE else to advocate for justice. 

Furthermore, there are examples where people didn’t know God’s will but acted politically – outside the acceptable lines.  In addition to Nehemiah, we have the case of Esther and Mordecai who faced with a decree which meant death to the Jews very consciously plan to influence the decisions of the king.  Mordecai says to Esther:

If you keep quiet at this time, liberation and protection for the Jews will appear from another source, while you and your father’s household perish. It may very well be that you have achieved royal status for such a time as this!”  

Esther 4:14

Mordecai presumed he knew what God wanted (to save the Jews) and then acted accordingly.  He and Esther did not know exactly what God wanted and would do, which Mordecai explicitly acknowledged– “it may very well be” he says.  We don’t know for sure but we will assume this is what God wants!  They went and approached the king uninvited – a move which risked death.  They went outside the lines based on what they knew was right without any endorsement from God.

Daniel 4 does not stop us speaking God’s truth to the world – and God’s word is inherently practical it requires action.  Being “good” and caring for the poor are two sides of God’s righteous character.  Like Esther and Mordecai, we aren’t moved by God, we are not inspired BUT we know God and what He is like.  We should also be taking positive steps to advance God’s concerns.

Others argue we should follow Paul’s example in Acts 23:1-5.   Paul was facing an illegal trial and contrary to the law, was hit during the trial.  He condemned the process as unfair and illegal.  It was.  But when challenged for condemning the high priest Paul quotes Exod 22:28 which says don’t speak evil of the ruler.  But Paul was in a tricky legal position. 

Technically the injunction in Exod 22:28 is to not curse a ruler – to literally place a spell/curse on them.  Paul probably had not crossed the line of Exod 22 but was facing a hostile and unfair crowd who were already breaking the law in their treatment of him.  Paul therefore defused the situation.  It’s not great Bible reading to take this as a rule for life.  It’s far more an example of a soft answer turning away wrath than a warning to 21st century Christians to not object to racism or environmental vandalism in a manner consistent with the laws of the land.

In a similar vein 1 Pet 2:17 – “honour the king” and the injunction in Romans 13 to be subject to the authorities as God appointed them, are rolled out by some to suggest we shouldn’t protest.  Some argue we shouldn’t even criticise leaders based on these passages[3].

But any reading of a passage must be fair.  Too often Christians who object to protests, who want us to merely tut tut from our lounge rooms pick and choose passages to support their case but disregard special contexts and the broader message of Scripture. 

Let’s take for example Jesus.  Occasionally he is referenced as an example who didn’t criticise rulers and suffered silently the injustice of his trial – implying we should similarly not respond to injustice.  But this is not a fair representation of Jesus’ words.

In Luke 13:32 Jesus publicly called Herod a fox.  We might use a fox to symbolise cleverness but the term in Jesus’ day meant someone insignificant, deceptive, or destructive – it is absolutely a negative judgmental term[4].

In his trial before Pilate, Jesus points out that Pilate’s authority didn’t come from him and that the Jewish leaders bear responsibility (greater sin) for the miscarriage of justice underway (John 19:11).  Jesus is condemning Pilate but pointing out most of the guilt lies with the Jewish elders. 

In the interrogation before the High Priest Jesus declares:

from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power and coming on the clouds of heaven

Matt 26:64

There’s a lot to unpack there.  Jesus firstly quotes from Psalm 110 which says:

Sit down at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool!” The Lord extends your dominion from Zion. Rule in the midst of your enemies!

Psalm 110:1-2

That’s an explicit context – the one on the right hand will destroy his enemies with God’s aid.  The second quote is equally powerful, coming from Daniel:

one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him.     To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty. All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving him. His authority is eternal and will not pass away. His kingdom will not be destroyed 

Daniel 7:13-14

By putting these two quotes together Jesus is plainly stating he is the Christ and that he will have authority and destroy his enemies after a period of time.  In the context of his trial and their determination to kill him this was a bald declaration that they are his enemies, and he would ultimately judge them with God’s power.  They understand the claim perfectly, declaring him guilty of blasphemy and then mocking him by calling him Christ in Matt 26:68.  Far from saying nothing, Jesus asserts that he will judge and destroy his enemies – i.e. those present in the room.

The prophets were scathing of wicked kings and judges.  You can’t take Exod 22:28, Rom 13 or 1 Pet 2 as a global rule for Godly behaviour because then you have Jesus breaking your rule – and we are meant to follow his example!  The book of Revelation is another example – no matter how you read it there is criticism of some rulers. 

There is a difference between invoking a curse against a king or idle slander versus actual truth telling.  If the king wicked then saying so does not breach the law in Exod 22:28.  If the political establishment (or religious establishment with political power) is condemned by Revelation, then surely we can say the same.

Furthermore, in many democracies protesting is legal so believers can simultaneously witness to God’s principles and honour the king/obey the laws of the land.  Many of us are fortunate that the two are not mutually exclusive.

If protesting was illegal, then the disciple would have a more significant but not insurmountable quandary.  The injunction to obey the rulers in Romans 13 is not absolute.  The early apostles were commanded not to preach but carried on in violation of the law because as they point out in Acts 4:19-20 we should obey God rather than man.  A wicked instruction – in their case don’t preach – is invalid and Romans 13 doesn’t apply.  Similarly, the Old Testament prophets freely and publicly condemned the failures of their governments, exploiting the poor and taking advantage of the vulnerable widows and orphans was a common theme.  So yes, pay your taxes, obey the rules but understand this is no bar to protesting about immoral situations.  Like say slavery, or racism, or exploiting the vulnerable.

But what will people think? 

If we go to a protest we are associating with bad people and rioters!  But negative behaviour doesn’t have to be part of witnessing any more than policing must use unnecessary violence. 

As an example, some Christians point to the official BLM movement and complain the entirety of the agenda is a little too affirming and open.  They suggest Jesus’ people should not protest racial inequality lest everyone assumes we are giving unqualified support to the entire BLM agenda.  But this is an argument of exaggeration – surely we can be a little more nuanced in our approach to life.

Guilt by association is not a thing.  We can go to a protest/march and behave as a disciple of Jesus.  We don’t need to start a riot (even though Jesus started a riot); we can be peaceful.

But says the traditionalist – Prov 22:24 says being friends with the angry can influence us to be angry.  Sure but my Lord walked with the sons of thunder who wanted to bring down fire on villages and with a zealot – an official card-carrying revolutionary – and it didn’t make him violent.  We, like our Lord can be an influence for good.  We can be the salt of the earth at the Rally/Tree planting/Peace Walk as we shine the light of God’s principles to all. 

Will people judge us by the company we keep?  Maybe.  Should a disciple be worried?  No.  After all they criticised the Lord calling him “a friend of publicans and sinners” (Luke 7:34).  So bad things might come of protests?  Maybe.  But bad things come of inaction too.  The status quo might be an immoral reality, systemic racism is evil.  Destroying the lives of millions through climate inaction is immoral.  Yet those who reject protest tend to overlook these evils and instead dwell on bad protesters who hold up traffic or suchlike.  Is there such a thing as doing nothing?  Inaction is implicit support for the status quo with all its problems.

At the end of the day if I stand accused of keeping bad company then my Lord knows from experience how that feels…

Shouldn’t we leave it to Jesus?

There is a tradition in some quarters that tries to make a virtue out of inaction, that inverts Jesus’ message that like a city set on a hill we cannot be hid.  It ties inaction and introspection into a seemingly pious bundle.  The claim briefly stated is that even though God is the father of orphans and widows we shouldn’t be doing soup kitchen work because charity should be internally focussed first, and our efforts externally should be salvation focussed. 

Surely not you are thinking.  Yes.  Here’s a quote because someone actually said this:

the Lord Jesus Christ instructs those at that time not to put their effort into meat that perishes but meat that endures for everlasting life.  Now the same is true for us, our effort is not to be humanitarian …and saving souls on a daily basis in the sense of food and that kind  of thing …don’t put your effort there don’t labour for the meat that perishes it’s not about meal a day and stuff like that he says, put your effort into the meat which endures for everlasting life[5]

This is a misuse of Jesus words.  Awful really. 

Yes we are not to take anxious thought for meat and clothing (Matt 6:31) and are to expend our energies on seeking spiritual food rather than natural (John 6:26) – but this is the focus of the believer personally.

While some might decry soup kitchens and giving to the needy, Jesus tended to both the spiritual and physical needs.  He fed crowds of people – at least twice – in advance of preaching.  To say our primary mission is to preach the gospel is true – but this does not exclude standing for God’s principles and doing good.  The two are not mutually exclusive. 

Claiming we should preach the kingdom solution while abstaining from alleviating problems and suffering now reminds me of James 2:15-16 which warns against a faith which offers platitudes rather than action.  Telling the poor to be warmed and filled, offering thoughts and prayers of a better coming day without action is pointless.  Faith acts.  Rejecting responsibility for showing kingdom values now, refusing to address problems now because Jesus will do it later is a latter-day form of burying our talent, leaving it all to the absent master rather than doing his work until he come.

While yes peace and full solutions will only come with the return of Jesus doing nothing now is a failure to live the principles of Jesus.  It is similar to Paul’s incredulous query in Romans 6:1 “shall we sin that grace may abound?”  Shall we neglect seeking God’s values so the kingdom transformation will abound?  Surely not. 

When we see injustice and wickedness in the world will we shake our heads in the silence of our lounge rooms and church halls or raise our voices like the prophets?  When leaders are wicked will we fearlessly point it out like John the Baptist condemning the unlawful marriage of Herod?  Or will we hide our lamp under the bushel of a conveniently selected Bible verses?

We all agree God will fix all the problems as part of Christ’s kingdom.  The question is do we have a responsibility to take action now? 

By way of comparison, the Kingdom will see peace, love, joy, and respect for God spread throughout the world.  We understand we should promote these values now.  Where is Scripture saying we get to pick and choose which of God’s values we should promote now?  We should not stand by quietly while over exploitation driven by human greed destroys habitats and imperils already vulnerable human populations.  Care for the poor is a Christian imperative and climate change is a current threat to many – in addition to threatening the many creatures God created. 

The positive case for action

Let’s explore some passages that show living God’s principles, following the Jesus Road means raising our hands and voices against oppression and injustice.

..God who is unbiased and takes no bribe, who justly treats the orphan and widow, and who loves resident foreigners, giving them food and clothing. So you must love the resident foreigner because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt

Deut 10:17-19

God provides for the poor and the refugees/strangers – i.e. not just those of Israel.  So limiting our charitable concern to those who share our faith is incorrect (in case the parable of the good Samaritan wasn’t clear enough!).  There was a positive duty to show love to the stranger- the unbeliever.  Do we think this quality of God doesn’t require emulation?  Deut 10 explicitly says “you must love” because of my character. Jesus told us to be perfect like our Father Matt 5:48 and in the context he has told the disciple to copy God’s goodness to the just and unjust, to show love to all not JUST our brethren (thereby again refuting the misuse of Gal 6:10 to narrow our scope of love).

Psalms continues the imperative to act on social justice:

Defend the poor and fatherless:  Do justice to the afflicted and needy. Deliver the poor and needy: Rid them out of the hand of the wicked.

Psalm 82:3-4

God gives this instruction in Psa 82 and Jesus in John 10:35 quotes this psalm saying the instruction is to the Jews “those to whom the word of God came”.  Here is a simple injunction then.  As those who have God’s word we need to respond and demonstrate the love of God to the poor.  How do we do justice?  Part of it is to stand against injustice, to save the helpless from the hand of the wicked.  This is not silent disagreement.  It is action.

Let’s keep rolling because there is an abundance of material saying we should speak out and protest sins

Learn to do what is right! Promote justice! Give the oppressed reason to celebrate! Take up the cause of the orphan! Defend the rights of the widow!

Isaiah 1:17

So thunders Isaiah.  Stop sinning and do the following – promote justice!  How do we propose to respond to the prophetic instruction?  Refusing to protest and seeking to hide our light doesn’t seem like a response.  The term “promote justice” in the NET is a better representation of the Hebrew than the KJV “seek justice” which sounds more like an academic exercise alone.  No.  The word is:

A verb meaning to seek, to inquire of, to examine, to require. Figuratively, it may refer to seeking out or inquiring about lovers (Jer. 30:14) or to care for Zion (Jer. 30:17). It denotes inquiring about persons (2 Sam. 11:3) or their welfare (souls)(Ps. 142:4[5]). It indicates the Lord’s care for His land (Deut. 11:12). It carries the general sense of seeking out property, such as a lost ox or cattle (Deut. 22:2), or examining a matter (Deut. 13:14[15]; Judg. 6:29; 1 Kgs. 22:7) or event. It takes on the meaning of requiring or demanding someone’s blood in a moral or legal sense (Gen. 9:5; 2 Chr. 24:22; Ps. 10:13) but also of seeking good itself (Amos 5:14).[6]

Complete Word Study Dictionary

Action is required.  Promote justice means more than have a technical understanding of it and hope Jesus makes it all better later.  To have plenty and refuse to help the poor and needy is the hallmark of Sodomites not the godly according to Ezek 16:49.

The wisdom literature talks about this several times, e.g.

To do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice

The one who shuts his ears to the cry of the poor, he too will cry out and will not be answered

Proverbs 21:3,13

What is wisdom?  Being responsive to the cries of the poor.  Knowing the Bible isn’t wisdom – implementing God’s care is.

Open your mouth on behalf of those unable to speak, for the legal rights of all the dying. Open your mouth, judge in righteousness, and plead the cause of the poor and needy

Proverbs 31:8-9

This was a mother’s instruction to her son.  Some might argue the proverb is an instruction for a king only so doesn’t apply to us.  Consider that it is part of the inspired record, God surely didn’t preserve it for the few readers that would be King.  It’s a wise course of action.  Secondly it is the hope of saints to be king priests (Rev 5:10) and our future role should be the basis of current decision making (1 Cor 6:3).  We should be advocating for the poor and needy.  I.e. our voice should be heard in matters of justice.

Love is not just dealing with symptoms – or shouting the gospel at those who lack daily bread.

The gospel must be clothed in practical reality.  That means making a difference.  Isaiah does not tell us to privately drop a buck in the widow’s bowl.  He wants us to defend her rights, to take up the cause of the orphan – this is action which extends to political action – addressing root causes. As Fred Van Dyke wrote:

Yet if Christians must stand against evil, then at some point they must surely also stand against the causes of evil and the cultural and political environments that breed it. At some point, then, it is inevitable that Christians will address the policies of the state if they wish to demonstrate any correspondence between personal belief and community life, or any relation between God’s throne in heaven and his footstool, the earth [7]

Confronting Amos & Micah

Amos 5 is an awesome chapter.  And a confronting one.

Seek good and not evil so you can live! Then the Lord, the God who commands armies, just might be with you, as you claim he is. Hate what is wrong, love what is right! Promote justice at the city gate!

Amos 5:14-15a

Be out in public promoting justice.  Be in the political space raising your voice – the city gate.  It is part and parcel of hating wrong and loving right.  There were plenty of external religious observances in his day Amos noted.  But everything was awry because of the idolatry AND injustice.

If we have privilege – if we have a voice and are not trapped in poverty or injustice then we have a responsibility to raise our voice – to use our platform – and do so in the city gate, the public space.  If we don’t then Amos is scathing – stop your worship because God hates it:

“I absolutely despise your festivals! I get no pleasure from your religious assemblies!  Even if you offer me burnt and grain offerings, I will not be satisfied; I will not look with favor on your peace offerings of fattened calves. Take away from me your noisy songs; I don’t want to hear the music of your stringed instruments

Amos 5:21-23

Stop pretending.  Your bible class, your hymns, your religious observance if it doesn’t promote justice if it doesn’t help the poor and protect the innocent then stop all your religion because God hates it.  Strong words.  God’s words not mine.  What does God want?  What is he looking for from us?

My favourite verse in the Bible follows:

But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.

Amos 5:24

This is what God wanted to see in His people.  Amos is a prophet of particular interest who condemns religious failures but also roundly condemns the exploitation of the poor by the rich (e.g. Amos 4:1, 5:11, 8:4,6).  I love the verse.  It’s everything about the kingdom for me, the why of the kingdom.  What’s my vision of the kingdom – that. 

A passage in Micah 6 is very well known:

He has told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord really wants from you: He wants you to promote justice, to be faithful, and to live obediently before your God

Micah 6:8

How well are we doing this?  Micah certainly does ask NOT ask us to be passive!  The word “promote” means much more than the KJV “do justly” which could mean just private action/behaviour.  Instead we have a:

…verb meaning to do, to make, to accomplish, to complete. This frequently used Hebrew verb conveys the central notion of performing an activity[8]

Complete Word Study Dictionary

Promoting justice is just as important as faithfulness and obedience to God – too many historically would go for being faithful and obedient but don’t promote justice.  This is a not a case where “two out of three ain’t bad” to quote Meatloaf.  Making justice in the world is just as much about discipleship as faith.

More examples could be given of the demand for God’s people to practice, love, promote justice and care for the weak.  Ultimately the challenge is personal.  Are we just hearers of God’s word or are we going to do? 

Pure and undefiled religion before God the Father is this: to care for orphans and widows in their misfortune and to keep oneself unstained by the world

James 1:27

Not caring or not trying to make a difference is religion for ourselves not God.  It is religion which God doesn’t want.  Unless you are going to advocate in the world for justice then just be quiet and stop is what Amos 5 says plainly.

But I can’t

Now practically I know some people will be saying – I’m old, I’m a young mum with kids how can I possibly do that?  And the good news is you are not one person.

We are part of a body – a body with different functions and capabilities.  Plenty of members give their time for practical justice.  Days for girls, Agape in Action, homeless BBQs, health clinics, volunteering at charities to name just a small handful.  One can advocate for protecting God’s creation, another might raise their voice in the city gate for racial justice, others cannot afford such time because they must work two jobs to support their family or work the equivalent of 3 jobs because they have young kids.  But as a body we can and should be known for supporting our members who either practically work for justice OR raise their voice and represent us at the city gate, in the public square. Perhaps we could just provide financial support for some cause. Or take some time out to go to a tree planting day…

The youth in any congregation have a role to play as they are typically more attune to issues of justice and perhaps less worn down or busy in just living than the older folk.

In conclusion

  • Most of us are fortunate to live in countries where pointing out the inequalities and evils the prophets decried is legal
  • Like our Lord we are defined by the values we express not the company we keep
  • Scriptural passages about respecting rulers are contingent on being able to obey God over man – and comply with the injunction of the prophets to witness against evil
  • We should live and testify to God’s values now, even though we know proper implementation won’t be achieved until the Kingdom
  • Providing spiritual food and natural aid are not mutually exclusive activities and Jesus modelled both
  • Scripture is full of positive injunctions to publicly witness to and advocate for justice and care for the disadvantaged
  • Most of us are privileged to be in a position where we can raise our voice & like Esther this an advantage we should use.
  • As the body has many parts so we all have many roles and capabilities.  Not all can raise their voice – but some must and be supported in doing so

Jesus went out and taught in both synagogues and the countryside.  He wanted his disciples to be a light to the world, to be the salt of the earth.  This means engagement and witness.  Not just an explanation of the coming kingdom but promoting the values and agenda of our king.  We shouldn’t be armchair disciples but as a community we should be engaged advocates for the cares, the values, of the one we serve.

by Daniel Edgecombe

[1] Sargent, Louis (1968) The Christadelphian (Birmingham: Christadelphian Magazine & Publishing Association, 2001), Col 105, page 368.

[2] Henstock, Geoff (2022)   – visited 4/9/22 

[3] Again Geoff Henstock argues “It also would be wrong for them to make public comments, including via social media, on the pros and cons of political causes or government actions” in The Lampstand Magazine article “Disciples and Protest” Volume 27, Issue 6 | November – December 2021

[4] Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2005).

[5] Bowen, Jonathan (2020) 55 minute mark visited 28 Jun3 2020

[6] Warren Baker and Eugene E. Carpenter, The Complete Word Study Dictionary: Old Testament (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2003), 249.

[7] Fred Van Dyke, “Bridging the Gap: Christian Environmental Stewardship and Public Environmental Policy,” Trinity Journal 18, no. 2 (1997): 140.

[8] Warren Baker and Eugene E. Carpenter, The Complete Word Study Dictionary: Old Testament (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2003), 876.

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